Nutrition Guide for Physicians

von: Ted Wilson, George A. Bray, Norman J. Temple, Maria Boyle Struble

Humana Press, 2010

ISBN: 9781603274319 , 444 Seiten

Format: PDF, OL

Kopierschutz: Wasserzeichen

Windows PC,Mac OSX Apple iPad, Android Tablet PC's Online-Lesen für: Windows PC,Mac OSX,Linux

Preis: 79,72 EUR

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Nutrition Guide for Physicians


 

Dedication

6

Series Editor Introduction

7

Preface

12

Contents

15

Contributors

18

1 Fat: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly

21

1 Introduction

21

2 Types of Dietary Fat and Their Food Sources

22

2.1 Saturated Fats

22

2.2 Monounsaturated Fatty Acids (MUFA)

23

2.3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA)

23

2.4 Essential Fatty Acids and the n--6 and n--3 Families

23

2.5 Trans Fats

24

2.6 Sterols

24

3 Dietary Fat Effects on Health

24

3.1 Obesity

24

3.1.1 Role of Total Dietary Fat

24

3.1.2 Role of Specific Fatty Acids

25

3.2 Heart Disease

26

3.3 Type 2 Diabetes and Insulin Resistance

26

3.3.1 Role of Total Dietary Fat

26

3.3.2 Role of Specific Fatty Acids

27

3.4 Cancer

28

3.5 Inflammation

28

4 Conclusions

29

Suggested Further Reading

30

2 Dietary Fiber: All Fibers Are Not Alike

32

1 Introduction

32

2 Definition and Sources of Dietary Fiber

35

3 Benefits of Adequate Fiber Intake

35

3.1 Cardiovascular Disease

35

3.2 Weight Control

36

3.3 Type 2 Diabetes

37

3.4 Cancer

37

3.4.1 Large Bowel Cancer

37

3.4.2 Breast Cancer

38

3.5 Bowel Function

38

3.6 Colon Disease

39

3.6.1 Diverticulosis

39

3.6.2 Irritable Bowel Syndrome

40

4 Potential Negative Effects of Dietary Fiber

40

5 Conclusions

41

Suggested Further Reading

41

3 Sugar and Artificial Sweeteners: Seeking the Sweet Truth

44

1 Defining Sweeteners Caloric And Noncaloric

45

2 Consumption Patterns Of Sweeteners

46

2.1 Methods for Obtaining Sweetener Data

46

2.2 Global Trends in Availability

47

2.3 United States per Capita Trends in Total Caloric Sweeteners

47

2.4 Caloric Sweeteners in Beverages

49

2.5 Caloric Sweeteners in Foods

50

2.6 United States per Consumer Trends

50

3 Health Effects Of Added Caloric Sweeteners

51

4 Discussion

55

Suggested Further Reading

56

4 The Vitamins and Minerals: A Functional Approach

58

1 Introduction

58

2 The Antioxidant Nutrients

60

2.1 Vitamin C

60

2.2 Vitamin E

60

2.3 The Vitamin A Precursor: ß-Carotene

63

2.4 Selenium

64

3 Nutrients for Healthy Blood

64

3.1 Folate

64

3.2 Vitamin B 12

64

3.3 Vitamin B 6

68

3.4 Vitamin K

68

3.5 Iron

69

3.6 Zinc

69

3.7 Copper

70

4 Nutrients for Healthy Bones

70

4.1 Vitamin D

70

4.2 Vitamin K

74

4.3 Calcium

74

4.4 Phosphorus

74

4.5 Magnesium

75

4.6 Fluoride

75

5 Vitamins, Minerals, and Energy Metabolism

75

5.1 Thiamin

76

5.2 Riboflavin

76

5.3 Niacin

76

5.4 Iodine

80

5.5 Chromium

80

6 Minerals and Fluid Balance

80

Suggested Further Reading

82

5 Dietary Reference Intakes: Cutting Through the Confusion

84

1 Introduction

84

2 The Dietary Reference Intakes

85

2.1 Estimated Average Requirement

85

2.2 Recommended Dietary Allowance

85

2.3 Adequate Intake

86

2.4 Tolerable Upper Intake Level

86

2.5 Estimated Energy Requirement

86

2.6 Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges

86

3 Limits And Uses Of The Dri

86

3.1 Limits

86

3.2 Statistical Analysis

87

3.3 General Guidelines for Diet Assessment of Individuals

87

4 Dri And The Consumer

88

5 Summary

88

Suggested Further Reading

89

6 Food Labels and Sources of Nutrients: Sorting the Wheat from the Chaff

90

1 The Nutrition Facts Label

90

2 Using The Nutrition Facts Label

93

3 Major Nutrient Contributions Of The Food Groups And Of Various Foods

95

4 Food Sources Of Select Nutrients

95

4.1 Lipids

95

4.2 Dietary Fiber

95

4.3 Vitamins

96

4.4 Minerals

96

5 Health Claims

96

Suggested Further Reading

98

7 Vegetarian and Vegan Diets: Weighing the Claims

99

1 Introduction

99

2 Health Benefits of Vegetarian Diets

100

2.1 Vegetarian Diets and Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)

101

2.1.1 Vegetarian Diet and Serum Lipids

101

2.1.2 Vegetarian Diets and Blood Pressure

102

2.2 Vegetarian Diets and Obesity

102

2.3 Cancer

102

2.4 Type 2 Diabetes

103

2.5 Bone Health

103

3 Nutrient Deficiencies In Vegetarian Diets

103

3.1 Energy

104

3.2 Protein

104

3.3 Calcium

105

3.4 Iron

105

3.5 Zinc

107

3.6 Vitamin B 12 (Cobalamin)

108

3.7 Vitamin D

108

3.8 n--3 Fatty Acids

109

4 Summary

109

Suggested Further Reading

110

8 Dietary Recommendations for Non-alcoholic Beverages

112

1 We are (mainly) what we Drink

112

2 Coffee Consumption Poses No Health Risk for Most Persons

113

3 Tea Consumption is Protective and Should Be Encouraged

113

4 Milk is Good for You

115

5 Health Benefits Of Fruit Juices

115

5.1 Health Benefits of Citrus Juice Consumption

116

5.2 Health Effects of Other Types of Fruit Juice

117

5.3 And Don't Forget Vegetable Juices

118

6 Health Effects of Soft Drink Consumption

118

7 Weight Loss and Weight Management Beverages

119

8 Sports Beverages

119

9 Energy Drinks Remain Controversial Beverages

120

10 What'S the Buzz Regarding Caffeine?

121

11 Conclusions

122

Suggested Further Reading

122

9 Should Moderate Alcohol Consumption Be Promoted?

124

1 Introduction

124

2 Phytochemicals In Alcholic Beverages

125

3 Harmful Effects Of Alcohol

125

4 Health Benefits Associated With Alcohol Consumption

127

5 Effect Of Alcohol On Total Mortality

129

6 What Advice Should A Physician Give?

129

Suggested Further Reading

130

10 Issues of Food Safety: Are ``Organic'' Apples Better?

131

1 Introduction

131

1.1 Conventional and Organic Food Production Systems

132

2 What Makes A Food Safe?

133

3 Nutritional Value of Organic Versus Conventional Fruit and Vegetables

133

3.1 Comparison of Organically Grown and Conventionally Grown Products

135

3.1.1 Grapes and Wine

135

3.1.2 Oranges

136

3.1.3 Apples

136

3.1.4 Peach and Pears

136

3.1.5 Tomatoes

136

3.2 Other Causes of Differences Between Organic and Conventional Foods

137

3.2.1 Pesticides

137

3.2.2 Food Poisoning

137

3.2.3 GMOs

138

3.2.4 Antibiotics

138

3.2.5 Food Additives

138

3.2.6 Food Palatability

138

4 Conclusion

139

11 What Is a Healthy Diet? From Nutritional Science to Food Guides

141

1 Defining A Healthy Diet

141

1.1 Controlling Fat Intake and BMI

141

1.2 All Fats Are Not Alike

142

1.3 Carbohydrates; Good and Bad

143

1.4 Whole Fruits and Vegetables Are Better

143

1.5 Coffee, Tea, and Alcohol

144

1.6 The Problem with Salt

144

1.7 Supplements: There Is No Shortcut to a Balanced Diet

145

1.8 How Safe Is Our Food?

145

2 Food Guides

146

2.1 MyPyramid

147

2.2 Harvard's Healthy Eating Pyramid

147

2.3 DASH Eating Plan

148

2.4 Canada's Food Guide

149

2.5 Traffic Lights Food Guide

149

Suggested Further Reading

151

12 Achieving Dietary Change: The Role of the Physician

152

1 Introduction

152

2 Efficacy Of Nutrition Counseling By Physicians

153

3 Medical Office System Support

153

4 Client-Centered Therapy

155

5 The 5 A's Counseling Model

155

6 Models for Inducing Change

156

6.1 Transtheoretical Model and Stages of Change

156

6.2 Motivational Interviewing

156

6.3 Cognitive-Behavioral Theory

157

6.4 Incorporation of Behavioral Theory Tenets to the 5A Model

158

7 Summary

158

Suggested Further Reading

161

13 Dietary Supplements: Navigating a Minefield

163

1 Introduction

163

2 Common Supplements

164

2.1 Supplements with Strong Supporting Evidence

164

2.2 Antioxidants

165

2.3 Detoxification

165

2.4 Boosting the Immune System

166

2.5 Herbs and Herbal Cocktails

166

2.6 Exotic Fruit Juices

166

2.7 Weight loss Products

166

2.8 A Repeating Story

167

2.9 Potential Hazards from Supplements

167

3 How Dietary Supplements Are Marketed

168

3.1 Direct Contact with Consumers

168

3.2 Multilevel Marketing

168

3.3 Sources of the Supplemental Message

169

3.4 The Object of the Exercise

169

4 Regulations On The Marketing Of Supplements

169

4.1 United States

169

4.2 Canada

170

5 Helping Patients Make Informed Choices About Dietary Supplements

170

Suggested Further Reading

171

14 Taste Sensation: Influences on Human Ingestive Behavior

173

1 Introduction

173

2 Anatomy and Physiology of the Taste System

174

3 Innate vs. Acquired Tastes for Specific Macronutrients and Salt

174

3.1 Carbohydrate

175

3.2 Protein

175

3.3 Fat

176

3.4 Sodium Chloride

177

4 Genetic Variations in Taste

177

5 Physiological Responses to Taste Perception

177

6 Taste Sensation Abnormalities and Effects on Nutritional Status

178

7 Nutritional Implications of Taste in Selected Populations

179

7.1 Age

179

7.2 Obesity

179

7.3 Hypertension

180

7.4 Diabetes

180

8 Summary

180

Suggested Further Reading

181

15 Pregnancy: Preparation for the Next Generation

183

1 Introduction

183

2 Nutrition In The Preconception Period

184

3 Nutrition During Pregnancy

185

3.1 Weight Gain in Pregnancy

185

3.2 Energy and Macronutrient Needs During Pregnancy

186

3.3 Vitamin and Mineral Needs During Pregnancy

186

3.4 Substances to Limit or Avoid in Pregnancy

189

3.5 Food Safety During Pregnancy

190

3.6 Translating Nutrition Guidelines into Practical Advice About Food

190

4 Special Concerns During Pregnancy

190

4.1 Common Complaints

191

4.2 High-Risk Pregnancies

191

5 Nutrition For Lactation

192

6 Nutrition For The Postpartum Period

193

7 Referals For Services

193

8 Summary

194

Suggested Further Reading

194

16 Infants: Transition from Breast to Bottle to Solids

196

1 What Is The Best Milk For An Infant?

196

2 Nutrient Content Of Breast Milk And Infant Formula

197

3 Bioactivity Of Human Milk And Formulas

200

4 Health Benefits Of Human Milk

201

5 Transition To Solid Foods

202

6 Summary

204

Suggested Further Reading

204

17 Young Children: Preparing for the Future

207

1 Introduction

207

2 Monitoring Growth

208

3 Nutrition Guidance

208

3.1 Energy and Nutrient Needs

208

3.2 Dietary Guidance

210

4 Healthy Eating Behaviors

210

5 Nutrition Concerns During Childhood

212

5.1 Childhood Obesity

212

5.2 Food Insecurity

213

5.3 Food Allergies and Sensitivities

213

5.4 Iron Deficiency Anemia

214

5.5 Vitamin and Mineral Supplementation

214

Suggested Further Reading

214

18 Adolescents and Young Adults: Facing the Challenges

216

1 Introduction

216

2 Growth

217

3 Energy and Nutrient Requirement

217

3.1 Energy

218

3.2 Macronutrients

218

3.3 Micronutrients

218

3.4 Nutrition Assessment

220

4 Special Adolescent Nutritional Considerations

220

4.1 Overweight and Obesity

220

4.2 Eating Disorders

220

4.2.1 Anorexia Nervosa

221

4.2.2 Bulimia Nervosa

221

4.2.3 Binge-Eating Disorder

221

5 Promoting Healthy Food Habits

222

6 Summary

222

Suggested Further Reading

223

19 Healthy Aging: Nutrition Concepts for Older Adults

225

1 Introduction

225

2 Physiologic Aging and Nutrition

226

2.1 Body Composition

226

2.2 Gastrointestinal Secretions

226

2.3 Renal System

227

3 Nutrient Requirements of the Older Adult

227

3.1 Energy Requirements

227

3.2 Protein

228

3.3 Micronutrients

228

3.3.1 Fat-Soluble Vitamins (A, E, D, and K)

228

3.3.2 Water-Soluble Vitamins

229

3.4 Minerals

230

3.5 Fluid Homeostasis

231

3.6 Special Benefits of Plant Foods

231

3.7 Dietary Supplements

231

4 Body Weight in the Older Adult

232

4.1 Low Body Weight

232

4.2 Overweight/Obesity

232

4.3 Factors Influencing Food Intake in Older Adults

233

4.3.1 Socioeconomic Factors

233

4.3.2 Health Factors

234

4.3.3 Evaluating Nutritional Risk

234

5 Health Promotion For The Older Adult

235

Suggested Further Reading

235

20 Nutritional Status: An Overview of Methods for Assessment

237

1 Introduction

237

2 Principles of Nutritional Assessment

238

2.1 Food Frequency Questionnaires

238

2.2 Diet and Lifestyle History

239

2.3 Assessing Current Dietary Intake

240

2.4 Underreporting of Dietary Intake

240

2.5 Physical Examination

241

2.6 Body Composition Analyses

242

2.7 Laboratory Tests

243

3 Special Concerns by Age

243

3.1 Obesity and Age

243

3.2 Adolescents

244

3.3 Elderly

245

3.4 Food Access and/or Food Security

245

3.5 Other Areas of Concern

246

4 Healthy Eating Index

246

5 Conclusion

247

Suggested Further Reading

247

21 Eating Disorders: Disorders of Under- and Overnutrition

250

1 Introduction

250

2 Anorexia Nervosa

251

3 Bulimia Nervosa

252

4 Eating Disorder not Otherwise Specified

253

4.1 Binge-Eating Disorder

253

4.2 Night Eating Syndrome

254

4.3 Purging Disorder

255

5 Prevalence

255

6 Treatment

256

6.1 Psychotherapy

257

6.2 Psychotropic Medications

258

7 Prevention

259

8 Conclusion

259

Suggested Further Reading

260

22 Obesity: Understanding and Achieving a Healthy Weight

262

1 Introduction

262

2 Definition And Prevalence of Obesity

263

2.1 Body Mass Index

263

2.2 Central Adiposity

263

2.3 Prevalence

264

2.4 Cost of Obesity

264

3 Etiology

264

3.1 Energy Imbalance

264

3.2 Epidemiologic Model

265

3.3 Environmental Agents

265

3.3.1 Intrauterine Factors

265

3.3.2 Drug-Induced Weight Gain

265

3.4 Diet

265

3.4.1 Infant and Child Environment

266

3.4.2 Fat Intake

267

3.4.3 Glycemic Index

267

3.4.4 Calcium Intake

267

3.4.5 Frequency of Eating

268

3.4.6 Restrained Eating

268

3.5 Physical Activity

268

3.6 Smoking

269

3.7 Host Agents

269

3.7.1 Genetic Causes

269

3.7.2 Physiologic Factors

269

4 Pathology of Obesity

270

5 Pathophysiology

270

5.1 The Fat Cell as an Endocrine Cell

270

5.2 Visceral Fat

271

6 Complications of Obesity

271

6.1 Death

272

6.2 Diseases

272

7 Prevention

272

8 Treatment

272

8.1 Realities of Treatment

272

8.2 Diet

274

8.2.1 Diets Low in Fat and Low in Energy Density

274

8.2.2 Low-Carbohydrate Diets

274

8.2.3 Portion-Controlled Diets

274

8.3 Behavior Modification and Lifestyle Interventions

274

8.4 Exercise

278

8.5 Medications

278

8.5.1 Noradrenergic Drugs

278

8.5.2 Sibutramine

278

8.5.3 Orlistat

279

8.5.4 Drugs Not Approved by the FDA for Treating Obesity

280

8.6 Surgery

280

9 Conclusion

281

Suggested Further Reading

281

23 Nutrition Therapy Effectiveness for the Treatment of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes: Prioritizing Recommendations Based on Evidence

284

1 Introduction

285

2 Medical Nutrition Therapy for Diabetes

285

3 Prioritizing Nutrition Interventions for Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes

286

3.1 Type 1 Diabetes Nutrition Interventions

287

3.1.1 Identify a Usual or Convenient Schedule of Food/Meals and Physical Activity

287

3.1.2 Integrate Insulin Therapy into the Patient's Lifestyle

287

3.1.3 Determine Insulin-to-Carbohydrate Ratios

288

3.1.4 Calculate Insulin Correction Factor

288

3.1.5 Review Goals

289

3.2 Type 2 Diabetes Nutrition Interventions

289

3.2.1 Focus on Metabolic Control

289

3.2.2 Implement Nutrition Interventions for Glucose Control

290

3.2.3 Encourage Physical Activity

291

3.2.4 Monitor Outcomes

292

4 Support and Continuing Education

292

5 Macro- And Micronutrients

292

5.1 Carbohydrate

292

5.1.1 Amount and Type of Carbohydrate

292

5.1.2 Glycemic Index

293

5.1.3 Fiber

293

5.2 Protein

294

5.3 Dietary Fat

294

5.4 Micronutrients

295

5.5 Alcohol

295

6 Summary

296

Suggested Further Reading

296

24 Lifestyle Interventions to Stem the Tide of Type 2 Diabetes

298

1 Introduction

298

2 Diagnosis Of Pre-Diabetes

299

3 Prevention Trials

299

4 Lifestyle Intervention Recommendations

302

4.1 Encourage a Moderate and Maintainable Weight Loss and Provide Participant Support

302

4.2 Recommend a Cardioprotective, Energy-Restricted Diet

302

4.3 Recommend 150 Min/Week of Physical Activity

304

4.4 Other Nutrition-Related Factors

305

4.4.1 Carbohydrate/Fats

305

4.4.2 Whole Grains and Dietary Fiber

305

4.4.3 Glycemic Index/Glycemic Load

305

4.4.4 Alcohol

306

5 Summary

306

Suggested Further Reading

307

25 Coronary Heart Disease: Nutritional Interventions for Prevention and Therapy

310

1 Introduction

310

2 Dietary Fat And Chd

311

2.1 Fat Intake

311

2.2 Saturated Fat and Dietary Cholesterol

311

2.3 Trans Fatty Acids

312

2.4 n--6 PUFA and MUFA

313

2.5 n--3 PUFA

313

3 Plant Sterols And Stanols

313

4 Thcy And B-Vitamins

314

5 Alcohol

314

6 Antioxidants

315

7 Dietary Fiber

315

8 Whole Diet Approaches To Chd Risk Reduction

316

8.1 Fruit, Vegetable, and Whole Grain Cereals

316

8.2 Nuts

316

8.3 The Portfolio Diet

317

9 Obesity

317

10 Physical Activity

317

11 Conclusion

318

Suggested Further Reading

319

26 Diet and Blood Pressure: The High and Low of It

320

1 Introduction

320

2 Definitions of Hypertension

321

3 Blood Pressure and Body Weight

321

4 Diet and Bp

322

4.1 Dietary Sodium

322

4.2 Potassium and BP

323

4.3 Dietary Patterns and BP

324

4.4 Dietary Fat

324

4.5 Dietary Protein

324

4.6 Alcohol Intake

325

5 Summary

325

Suggested Further Reading

325

27 Gastrointestinal Disorders: Does Nutrition Control the Disease?

327

1 Introduction

327

2 Constipation

328

3 Diarrhea

328

4 Irritable Bowel Syndrome

329

5 Food Allergy

329

6 Diverticulosis and Diverticulitis

330

7 Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

331

8 Peptic Ulcers

331

9 Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

332

10 Colorectal Cancer

334

11 Celiac Disease

334

12 Conclusion

335

Suggested Further Reading

336

28 Nutrition in Patients with Diseases of the Liverand Pancreas

338

1 Patients with Liver Disease

338

2 Liver Disease Associated with Nutritional Support

340

3 Patients with Pancreatic Disease

341

4 Conclusion

343

Suggested Further Reading

344

29 Medical Nutrition Therapy in Chronic Kidney Disease and Other Disorders

346

1 Introduction

346

2 Stages Of Chronic Kidney Disease

347

3 Overview Of Nutritional Management Of Ckd For Stages 1-4

347

4 Diet Prescription In Ckd Stages 1-4

350

5 Medical Nutrition Therapy For Hemodialysis

351

6 Medical Nutrition Therapy In Peritoneal Dialysis

353

7 Acute Renal Failure

354

8 Other Kidney-Related Conditions

355

9 Summary

356

Suggested Further Reading

356

30 Bone Health: Sound Suggestions for Stronger Bones

358

1 Introduction

358

2 Calcium

359

2.1 Dietary Calcium Requirements

359

2.2 Calcium Sources

360

3 Vitamin D

361

3.1 Vitamin D Requirements

361

3.2 Sources of Vitamin D

362

3.2.1 Food

362

3.2.2 Sun

362

3.2.3 Supplements

362

3.2.4 Safety

363

4 Protein

363

5 Phosphorus

363

6 Magnesium

364

Suggested Further Reading

365

31 Inherited Metabolic Disorders and Nutritional Genomics: Choosing the Wrong Parents

367

1 Introduction

367

2 Imd Diagnostic Classifications

368

2.1 Disorders Presenting as Intoxication or Encephalopathy

368

2.2 Disorders of Energy Metabolism

368

2.3 Disorders Involving Complex Molecules

369

3 Nutritional Management Of Inherited Metabolic Disorders The General Approach

369

4 Nutritional Management of Inherited Metabolic Disorders Disease-Specific Approach

369

4.1 Medium-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency (MCAD Deficiency)

370

4.2 Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD)

370

4.3 Phenylketonuria (PKU)

371

4.4 Homocystinuria

372

4.5 Galactosemia

372

5 Conclusions

373

Suggested Further Reading

373

32 Nutritional Challenges of Girls and Women

375

1 Female Reproduction and Nutrition

375

2 Females, Body Dissatisfaction, and Nutrition

377

3 Weight Management In Females

377

4 The Female Athlete Triad

378

5 Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

379

6 Menopause and Nutritional Supplements

380

7 Summary

381

Suggested Further Reading

381

33 Diet, Physical Activity, and Cancer Prevention

384

1 Introduction

384

2 Body Fatness

386

3 Physical Activity

387

4 Plant Foods

388

5 Meat Intake

393

6 Alcohol

395

7 Conclusions

395

Suggested Further Reading

396

34 Food Allergy and Intolerance: Diagnoses and Nutritional Management

399

1 Introduction

399

2 Food Allergy

400

2.1 Pathophysiology

400

2.2 Diagnosing Food Allergy

400

2.2.1 Medical History

400

2.2.2 Physical Examination

401

2.2.3 Diagnostic Tests

401

2.2.4 Elimination Diet and Oral Food Challenge

402

2.3 Nutritional Management

402

2.4 Prevention

404

3 Food Intolerance

404

3.1 Pathology

404

3.2 Enzymatic Food Intolerance

405

3.3 Pharmacologic Food Intolerance

405

3.4 Undefined Intolerance

406

3.5 Diagnosing Food Intolerance

406

3.6 Nutritional Management

407

4 SUMMARY

407

Suggested Further Reading

407

35 Drug Interactions with Food and Beverages

410

1 Introduction

410

2 Medications To Be Taken On An Empty Stomach

411

3 Specific Examples Of Food-Drug Interactions

411

3.1 Effects of Vitamin K on Warfarin Anticoagulation

411

3.2 Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors and Tyramine

411

3.3 Calcium Impairs Certain Antibiotic Absorption

412

4 Specific Examples Of FoodBeverage Interactions

412

4.1 Use of Acidic Beverages to Aid Drug Absorption

412

4.2 Grapefruit Juice Inhibits Drug Metabolism

412

4.3 Effect of Alcohol on Drug Action

415

4.4 Effect of Caffeine on Drug Action

415

5 Conclusion

416

Suggested Further Reading

416

Appendix A: Aids to Calculations

418

Appendix B: Sources of Reliable Information on Nutrition

420

Appendix C: Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI)

422

Subject Index

423